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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2021
Volume 17 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 279-422

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Laparoscopic management of choledochal cyst in children: Lessons learnt from low-middle income countries p. 279
Nguyen Thanh Liem, Vikesh Agrawal, Dexter S Aison
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_114_20  PMID:32964871
Choledochal cyst (CC) is a disease with a strong Asian preponderance. As laparoscopic surgery has become mainstay in its treatment, the experience in these countries has been phenomenal. However, there are many contentious issues related with the laparoscopic management of CC. In this review article, we will try to answer the contentious questions related to the laparoscopic management of CC. The issues related to aetiology, classification, surgical technique, type of biliary anastomosis, intrahepatic stones and malignancy are discussed. We also discuss the current and future considerations of laparoscopic management with reference to it becoming a gold standard. This article describes the standard surgical approach and will discuss its technical nuances. This article will also discuss the outcome of treatment in different settings of low- and middle-income countries based on lessons learnt by the authors from their experience and research.
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Pooled analysis of the oncological outcomes in robotic gastrectomy versus laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer p. 287
Hong-Ying Wu, Xiu-Feng Lin, Ping Yang, Wei Li
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_69_20  PMID:33047686
Aim: Robotic gastrectomy (RG) is more and more widely used in the treatment of gastric cancer. However, the long-term oncological outcomes of RG have not been well evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term oncological outcomes of RG and laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in the treatment of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Library and EMBASE electronic databases were searched until August 2019. Eligible studies were analysed for comparison of oncological outcomes between RG and LG in patients with gastric cancer. Results: Eleven retrospective comparative studies, which included 1347 (32.52%) patients in the RG group and 2795 (67.48%) patients in the LG group, were selected for the analysis. Meta-analysis of the 11 included studies showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the OS between the RG and LG groups (hazard ratios [HRs] = 0.97, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 0.80–1.19, P = 0.80). Six studies evaluated disease-free survival (DFS), and pooled analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference in DFS between RG group and LG group (HR = 0.94, 95% CIs = 0.72–1.23, P = 0.65). According to the odds ratio (OR) analysis, there was no significant difference in 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS and 5-year DFS between the RG and LG groups. Nine articles reported the recurrence rate, and the meta-analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the RG and LG groups (OR = 0.88, 95% CIs = 0.69–1.12, P = 0.31). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that the long-term oncological outcomes in the RG group were similar to that in the LG group.
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Environmental safety in minimal access surgery and its bio-economics p. 294

DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_130_20  PMID:32964865
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A novel approach for the complete extraction of large tumours in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery p. 299
Masato Aragaki, Kichizo Kaga, Yasuhiro Hida, Tatsuya Kato, Yoshiro Matsui
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_255_19  PMID:31997787
Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy has recently become the standard for treating lung cancer. However, the complete removal of large tumours from the chest cavity is often difficult. Therefore, we developed a novel approach to extract large tumours from the wound without rib resection or fracture (the eXtraction of resected specimens through the Lower INterCostal route [XLINC] method). Subjects and Methods: In XLINC, a skin incision is made on the tenth intercostal space, and the resected lung tissue is extracted. This retrospective study included patients who underwent VATS lobectomy using XLINC in our institution from 2016 to 2018. As a control group, six patients who had undergone thoracotomy during VATS surgery due to a large tumour diameter were included in the conversion group. Results: Four men and six women (median age = 66 years, maximum median tumour diameter = 59 mm) were included in the study. The median length of the wound incision for XLINC was 4.5 (range: 4–8) cm. The median operative time was 183 min, and the estimated blood loss was 50 ml. Rib resection was not required, and no fractures were noted. The median length of hospital stay was 8 days. No patients developed major complications caused by XLINC. There were no significant differences, except in operation time and amount of blood loss, between the two groups. However, the XLINC group used fewer post-operative analgesics. Conclusion: Our report suggests that XLINC might be a simpler, less invasive procedure that could be used in patients with large tumours.
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Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for obstructive defecation syndrome: Follow-up in the Indian population p. 305
Pranav Mandovra, Vishakha Kalikar, Roy V Patankar
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_292_19  PMID:32964866
Context: Obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS) is a poorly understood cause of constipation. In selected patients not responding to conservative management, surgical options may be offered. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) is another surgical option which gained popularity in the past decade. Aim: This study aims to identify the efficacy of LVMR in the Indian population. Setting and Design: It is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients who underwent LVMR from January 2015 to January 2017 at a tertiary centre in India. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Patients were periodically followed for 2 years. Pre- and post-operative modified Longo's ODS scores were recorded and compared. Furthermore, other complications were noted and evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Relevant statistical tests were used to analyse the collected data. Results: Thirty patients (28 females, 2 males, mean age: 52.4 years) underwent LVMR for ODS due to anatomical abnormality like rectorectal intussusceptions (RRIs) (36.7%), rectocele (13.3%), or combined RRI with rectocele (50%). The mean pre-operative modified Longo's ODS score was 23.17 ± 4.82 which decreased to 2.37 ± 1.59 at the end of 6 months and 1.23 ± 1.14 and 1.57 ± 1.14 at the end of 12 months and 2 years, respectively. The mean modified Longo's ODS score showed a significant fall of 94.7% at 12-month follow-up and 93.2% fall on 2-year follow-up. The mean operative time was 115 min and the average hospital stay of patients who underwent LVMR was 3.26 days. Conclusion: LVMR is a safe surgical procedure with minimal complications and good functional results for ODS patients due to rectal anatomical abnormality. Further larger studies are required to decide the best treatment modality for ODS.
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Single-incision versus four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an ambulatory surgery setting: A prospective randomised double-blind controlled trial p. 311
Helena Subirana, Francisco Javier Rey, Joan Barri, Joaquim Robres, Lourdes Parra, Montserrat Martín, Robert Memba, Josep Maria Mullerat, Rosa Jorba
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_97_20  PMID:32964868
Background: Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) can be done as a day-case procedure and may have advantages over conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We present the results of our study looking at post-operative pain and post-operative recovery time. Methods: This was a single-institution randomised double-blind controlled trial. Seventy-three patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were randomized to SILC (n = 37) or LC (n = 36). The primary endpoint was to compare post-operative pain. We also compared surgical time, procedural difficulty, adverse events, additional ports used and conversion rate, success of day surgery process, return to work, aesthetic satisfaction, quality of life and 4-year incisional hernia rate. Results: In the SILC group, post-operative analgesic requirements were lower on day 7, there was an earlier return to work and cosmetic satisfaction was significantly higher. The SILC procedure presented a higher technical difficulty. Operative time, surgical complications, post-operative pain, success of the day-case process, return to normal activity, quality of life scores and incisional hernia rates were similar for both the procedures. Conclusions: SILC has advantages over LC in terms of late post-operative analgesic requirements and aesthetic results; however, it is technically harder to perform. There was no benefit in terms of day surgery outcomes.
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Short-term outcomes of the conversion of one anastomosis gastric bypass to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in symptomatic reflux patients without revising the size of the gastric pouch p. 318
Mohammad Kermansaravi, Aamir Abbas, Mohadeseh Pishgahroudsari, Abdolreza Pazouki
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_27_20  PMID:32964872
Background: Revising the size of the gastric pouch during the conversion of one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB)/mini-gastric bypass to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an important point. Even in patients undergoing RYGB, marginal ulcer is regarded as a known complication. Materials and Methods: In our Centre of Excellence in Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery, 2492 patients underwent OAGB from February 2012 to January 2019. Twelve of 2492 patients were enrolled in this clinical case series because of persistent gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms which underwent conversional RYGB. All patients regularly received proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for 6 months after the surgery. After this period, the cases with symptomatic reflux were invited to be visited in the clinic by a bariatric surgeon and a gastroenterologist and received 6 months of PPI therapy until their symptoms disappeared. Twelve refractory reflux cases underwent conversional RYGB after 1 year. An enteroenterostomy was created in all the patients 75 cm distal to the gastrojejunostomy without resizing the gastric pouch, and the jejunal loop was cut just before the gastrojejunostomy. Results: Before conversional surgery, mean ± standard deviation (SD) body mass index (BMI) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Q score were found to be 26.45 ± 2.34 kg/m2 and 10.08 ± 0.56, respectively. At 1 year after conversion, mean ± SD BMI in the patients was 28.12 ± 4.71, and GERD-Q score was 5.08 ± 1.5. Conclusion: It seems that resizing the gastric pouch is not necessary during the conversion of OAGB to RYGB.
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Correlation between pre-operative endoscopic findings with reflux symptom score for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in bariatric patients p. 322
Amit Bhambri, Vitish Singla, Sandeep Aggarwal, Aashir Kaul, Mehul Gupta, Rachna Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_167_19  PMID:32964884
Introduction: There is a strong association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and morbid obesity. Methods: Two hundred and eleven morbidly obese patients operated between September 2007 and June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent pre-operative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and assessment by reflux symptomatic score questionnaire. Results: Of the total 211 patients, 156 (73.94%) were females; mean body mass index of the cohort was 46.23 ± 3.1 kg/m2. There was no evidence of Barrett's oesophagus or malignancy on pre-operative endoscopy. 63.04% of the patients (n = 133) in the study cohort had normal endoscopy. Pre-operative evaluation by reflux symptom score (RSS) questionnaire revealed no evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 61.13% of patients (n = 129). The total number of patients with symptoms was 82 (38.86%). They were further divided into two categories based on severity of symptoms, namely, mild + moderate 60 (73.17%) and severe + very severe 22 (26.83%). From the cohort of symptomatic patients, the sub-cohort of 60 mild + moderate symptomatic patients had equal number of patients with normal 30 (50%) and abnormal endoscopy 30 (50%). In the sub-cohort of patients with severe + very severe symptoms (n = 22; 26.83%), endoscopy was abnormal in 6 (27.7%) patients. Whereas, out of 129 (61.13%) asymptomatic patients, one-third (n = 42) had abnormal endoscopy. The weighted kappa score was used between pre-operative endoscopic findings and RSS was statistically not significant (k - 0.0986). Conclusion: Pre-operative endoscopy is a must in all bariatric patients as significant percentage of asymptomatic patients can have abnormal endoscopy and vice versa.
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Method for safe Verres needle entry at the umbilicus, with modification for first trocar entry to reduce the complication rate of first entry p. 329
Tehemton Erach Udwadia
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_235_20  PMID:33885028
Background: Initial intraperitoneal access and first trocar entry are responsible for nearly half of all complications of laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this article is to detail our method of initial intraperitoneal access with Veress needle and first trocar at the umbilicus used over the past 28 years. Patients and Methods: Since 1990, a single surgeon performed laparoscopic surgery in 7600 patients. From 1992 onward, 6975 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. On assessment, 739 cases (10.6%) were found unsuitable for Veress needle entry at the umbilicus. The remaining, 6236, patients form the study group for this article. Every patient was operated in the identical, repetitive manner. Every detail was considered important. The method of the first trocar entry is modified to minimise complications of this manoeuvre. Results: The average time from cleaning umbilicus again to Veress needle tip in peritoneum was 1 min 40 s (25 s–7 min). Out of the 4228 patients in whom no adhesions were observed at first trocar entry (Group 1), the Veress needle insertion was successful at first attempt in 3829 (90.5%) patients, at second attempt in 322 (7.6%) and at third attempt in 30 (0.7%). In the 2008 patients with significant adhesions observed after first trocar entry (Group 2), successful insertion of the Veress needle was achieved at first attempt in 1700 (84.6%) patients, at second attempt in 182 (9%) and at third attempt in 19 (0.9%). In this group, there was one bowel injury (0.05%) and 3 (0.15%) minor vascular injuries. There was no mortality in either group. In the overall series, the Veress needle was successfully introduced in 6082 of the 6236 patients (97.5%) and 154 patients (2.4%) failed Veress needle entry. The incidence of bowel injury in the series was 0.016% and that of minor vascular injuries was 0.048%. Conclusions: Initial intraperitoneal access must be performed with utmost caution after adequate training and proctorship. This paper stresses with meticulous attention to every detail, this safe, method of initial intraperitoneal access leads to low complication rates.
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Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Which one is the better technique for the beginners? p. 337
Chitresh Kumar, Kush Raj Lohani, Kamal Kataria, Piyush Ranjan, Anita Dhar, Anurag Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_184_19  PMID:32964885
Introduction: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is an advanced procedure and has a long learning curve. Most commonly employed approach is combined axillary-breast approach (ABA). Recently, transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is being popularised as a scarless procedure. However, it is not established whether TOETVA or ABA approach is better to begin with. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the initial experience of TOETVA and ABA with respect to difficulties and outcomes. Methodology: A prospective non-randomised interventional study was conducted including the initial ten patients in each group who underwent hemithyroidectomy for benign solitary thyroid nodule. Sigma plot version 12.3 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: All the patients were female and comparable with respect to age (33.2 vs. 28.2 years) and size of nodule (2.7 vs. 3 cm) (TOETVA vs. ABA). The operative time (121 vs. 138.5 min, P = 0.34) and blood loss (50 vs. 60 ml, P = 0.9) were similar in both the groups. Even though the flap raising time was significantly less with TOETVA group (29.3 vs. 47.2 min, P < 0.001), it was associated with more difficulty in approaching upper pole (P = 0.02) and lower pole (P < 0.001), more intra-operative events (30% vs. 10%, P = 0.58) and conversions to open (20% vs. 10%, P = 1). Similarly, post-operative pain scoring was more with TOETVA (3 vs. 2, P = 0.04). Hospital stay was similar in both the groups (2.5 vs. 3 days, P = 1). Patients in both the groups had both overall and cosmetic satisfaction. Conclusions: Axillary-breast approach should be preferred to start learning the endoscopic thyroidectomy, as it is easier and safer than transoral endoscopic vestibular approach.
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Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A role of inflammatory markers in the early detection of gastric leak p. 342
Lucia Romano, Antonella Mattei, Sara Colozzi, Antonio Giuliani, Giovanni Cianca, Gianni Lazzarin, Fabiana Fiasca, Francesco Carlei, Mario Schietroma
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_3_20  PMID:32964887
Setting: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining popularity as a bariatric option. Gastric leak (GL) is the most dreaded septic complication of LSG. Early detection and treatment of this complication may improve outcomes. Objectives: This study investigates biomarkers that might be useful to predict GL before its clinical presentation in patients who underwent LSG. Patients and Methods: This study, prospective observational, was carried out in 151 patients, who underwent LSG for morbid obesity between February 2014 and October 2019. Blood samples were collected before the operation and on post-operative days one, three and five to dose serum C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-calcitonin (PCT), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBCs) count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Results: GL occurred in 6 patients (3.97%). According to the receiver operating characteristics curve, NLR detected leak with remarkably higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) than CRP, fibrinogen, WBC on all the days and higher than PCT in post-operative days 3 and 5. Moreover, the area under the curve (AUC) of NLR (AUC = 1) was higher than the AUC of CRP, fibrinogen, WBC on all the days and higher than PCT in post-operative days 3 and 5, suggesting important statistical significance. Conclusions: Because NLR and PCT detected GL with remarkably higher sensitivity and specificity than CRP, fibrinogen and WBC, these two markers seem to be more accurate for the early detection of this complication.
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with portal cavernoma without portal vein decompression p. 351
Shridhar Vasantrao Sasturkar, Nikhil Agrawal, Asit Arora, M. P. Senthil Kumar, Ragini Kilambi, Shalini Thapar, Tushar Kanti Chattopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_106_20  PMID:32964890
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction causing portal cavernoma (PC) is considered high risk because of portosystemic collateral veins in the hepatocystic triangle. The literature is limited to isolated case reports. We describe our experience of LC in patients with PC. Patients and Methods: Data of patients with PC who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstones or related complications was reviewed. Patients with simultaneous cholecystectomy with splenorenal shunt and open cholecystectomy were excluded. Pre-operative evaluation consisted of complete blood count, international normalisation ratio and liver function tests, ultrasound of the abdomen with Doppler, contrast-enhanced computerised tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and esophagogastroscopy as indicated. A standard four-port LC was performed. The technical principles followed were to avoid injury to the collateral veins, liberal use of energy sources and division of dominant collateral veins between clips. Results: Seven adult patients including three females underwent LC. Three patients had thrombosis of previous surgical shunt with persistent PC. The remaining four patients did not have any indication for shunt surgery. Successful LC was performed in six patients. The median duration of surgery was 170 (130–250 min). Blood transfusion was not required. All the patients had uneventful post-operative recovery. The histopathology of gall bladder consists of acute cholecystitis in three patients and chronic cholecystitis in four. Conclusion: LC is feasible in patients with PC at a centre with experience in both laparoscopic and portal hypertension surgeries. Excellent outcome with low rate of conversion to open surgery can be achieved.
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Laparoscopic anterior resection: Analysis of technique over 1000 cases p. 356
Senthil Kumar Ganapathi, Rajapandian Subbiah, Sathiyamoorthy Rudramurthy, Harish Kakkilaya, Parthasarathi Ramakrishnan, Palanivelu Chinnusamy
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_132_20  PMID:33605924
Purpose: Laparoscopic rectal surgery has moved from being experimental to getting established as a mainstream procedure. We aimed at analysing how rectal cancer surgery has evolved at our institute. Methods: A retrospective review of 1000 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal adenocarcinoma over a period of 15 years (January 2005 to December 2019) was performed. Technical modifications were made with splenic flexure mobilisation, intersphincteric dissection and anastomotic technique. The data collected included type of surgery, duration of surgery, conversion to open, anastomotic leak, defunctioning stoma and duration of hospital stay. The first 500 and the next 500 cases were compared. Results: The study patients were predominantly males comprising 68% (n = 680). The mean age of the patients was 58.3 years (range: 28–92 years). Majority of the procedures performed were high anterior resection (n = 402) and low anterior resection (LAR) (n = 341) followed by ultra-LAR (ULAR) (n = 208) and ULAR + colo-anal anastomosis (n = 49). A total of 42 patients who were planned for laparoscopic surgery needed conversion to open procedure. Forty-one patients (4.1%) had an anastomotic leak. The mean duration of stay was 5.3 + 2.8 days. The rate of conversion to open procedure had reduced from 5.4% to 3.0%. The rate of defunctioning stoma had reduced by >50% in the recent group. The anastomotic leak rate had reduced from 5.0% to 3.2%. The average duration of stay had reduced from 5.8 days to 4.9 days. Conclusion: This is one of the largest single-centre experiences of laparoscopic anterior resection. We have shown the progressive benefits of an evolving approach to laparoscopic anterior resection.
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Median arcuate ligament (Dunbar) syndrome: Laparoscopic management and clinical outcomes of a single centre p. 363
Mehmet Tolga Kafadar, Abdullah Oguz, Ulas Aday, Hüseyin Bilge, Ömer Basol
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_265_20  PMID:33885017
Background: Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a condition characterised by chronic abdominal symptoms associated with median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression of the coeliac artery. Aim: In this observational study, we aimed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic treatment in patients with MALS. Materials and Methods: The data of ten patients with MALS who were subjected to laparoscopic sectioning of the MAL were retrospectively reviewed. The following data were evaluated: age, gender, clinical and diagnostic test findings, American Society of Anaesthesiologists score, operative findings and complications and mortality, hospital stay duration and hospital readmission. The diagnosis of MALS was established by computed tomography (CT) angiography. Results: Six (60%) of ten patients with MALS were female and four (40%) were male. The mean age was 42.4 ± 12.3. The main symptoms were epigastric pain (100%) and weight loss (60%). CT angiography showed high-grade stenosis of the anterior wall of the proximal coeliac trunk and post-stenotic dilation caused by extrinsic compression of the MAL. Surgical procedure was uneventful in all patients. Operating time was 155.5 min (120–200) and intra-operative blood loss was 150 ml (100–250). Length of stay was 3.1 day (2–9), with no mortality. The post-operative complications developed in two female patients. One of them developed ileus and the other patient developed pulmonary thromboembolism. At 6-month follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Conclusion: Laparoscopic decompression is an effective treatment for MALS and can provide symptomatic relief. This method may be the preferred modality of treatment in view of its lack of morbidity and good results.
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UNUSUAL CASES Top

Laparoscopic hepatopancreatoduodenectomy for locally advanced gall bladder cancer p. 369
Mathews James, Raja Kalayarasan, Senthil Gnanasekaran, Biju Pottakkat
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_179_20  PMID:33605929
Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) can offer a survival advantage in selected patients with locally advanced gall bladder cancer (GBC). While the safety and feasibility of minimally invasive radical cholecystectomy have been recently documented, laparoscopic HPD for GBC has not been previously reported. A 73-year-old male with GBC infiltrating the bile duct underwent laparoscopic HPD to achieve R0 resection. The patient had an uneventful post-operative course except for delayed gastric emptying that improved with conservative management. The feasibility of laparoscopic HPD for locally advanced GBC reported in the present case needs to be documented in a large case series.
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Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic arteriovenous malformation complicated with portal hypertension p. 373
Takehiro Abiko, Yuma Ebihara, Motoya Takeuchi, Hiroki Sakamoto, Minoru Takahashi, Hisato Homma, Satoshi Hirano
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_193_20  PMID:33885019
Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is defined as a vascular anomaly with an abnormal anastomosis of the arterial and portal networks within the pancreas. Treatment modalities of PAVM include transarterial embolisation (TAE), irradiation and operation. Most patients treated with TAE alone will experience recurrence, so surgery is the best radical treatment. A female patient was admitted to our institution for the treatment of haematemesis. Examination revealed varices in the oesophagus and stomach, collateral circulation development caused by portal hypertension and PAVM of the pancreas. Surgical treatment was intended to reduce left portal hypertension. In this case, collateral circulation were considered dangerous points for unexpected bleeding. TAE was performed on the splenic artery before surgery to reduce blood flow in the areas with collateral circulation. En bloc resection of retroperitoneal tissue using the surgical procedure of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy was effective to minimise blood loss.
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Transoral robotic resection of unusual spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma of the larynx p. 376
Enrique Cadena-Pineros, Alfredo Ernesto Romero-Rojas, Ricardo Guerra
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_289_20  PMID:33885024
Spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma (SC/PL) is a subcutaneous mass usually localised on nape, shoulder or upper back. It is a benign lipogenic tumour composed of primitive CD34-positive spindle cells, floret-like multinucleated giant cells and mature adipocytes. Complete surgical excision is the optimal treatment. This unusual tumour in the larynx has only been reported in the medical literature once and was treated surgically by open approach. Actually, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is most suitable because provides tridimensional magnified view plus a greater mobility with instruments, allowing complete and safe removal of the supraglottic mass, allowing rapid healing and recovery. We present the first case of a SC/PL of larynx managed with TORS. Four hours after surgery, the patient was able to take a soft diet and was discharged 2 h later. The follow-up showed an excellent clinical and functional outcome.
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Refractory lymphatic ascites following laparoscopic management of renal lymphangiectasia: An unusual presentation p. 379
Sumit Saini, Brusabhanu Nayak, Prashant Singh, Amlesh Seth
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_306_20  PMID:33885026
Renal lymphangiectasia characterised by either unilocular or multilocular cystic lesion in and around the kidney is an uncommon condition. Presentation of these lesions is quite varied, which along with its uncommon occurrence adds to the challenges in the management of this condition. Most of these cases are managed conservatively and very rarely need any intervention. We present an unusual complication of refractory lymphatic ascites following laparoscopic deroofing of a unilocular renal lymphangiectasia in a 21-year-old gentleman who presented with left flank pain. The ascitic fluid analysis suggested non-chylous lymphatic ascites. The surgical outcome was rather exasperating for the patient than the disease itself. Hence, in the interest of the patient with minimal symptoms, if the imaging is highly suggestive of renal lymphangiectasia, either no intervention or the least invasive procedures should be attempted, whenever possible.
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Torsion of suprahepatic gall bladder p. 382
Woo Young Nho, Jae Oh Kim, Soon Young Nam, Se Kook Kee
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_171_20  
Suprahepatic gall bladder is rare, and torsion of the ectopic gall bladder is extremely rare. We report a patient of acute suprahepatic cholecystitis with torsion. A 69-year-old Korean male was admitted to our hospital for sudden-onset, severe epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a distended gall bladder with diffuse wall thickening and scanty pericholecystic fluid, which was located in ectopic suprahepatic position, accompanied by S4 hypotrophy of the liver without gallstones. Emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, and intraoperative findings revealed a distended and ischaemic gall bladder that was located in the suprahepatic position and had twisted along the cystic duct and artery pedicle in a clockwise manner. Detorsion was done and the gall bladder was resected. Unfortunately, the pre-operative diagnosis of gall bladder torsion was missed, and a definite diagnosis was made at the time of surgery. The patient was discharged on the 4th post-operative day.
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Pneumothorax as a rare complication during laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernia repair: A case report and review of the literature p. 385
Nikolaos Koliakos, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Andrianos-Serafeim Tzortzis, Dimitrios Schizas, Dimitrios Bistarakis, Anargyros Bakopoulos
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_34_21  
Totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) and trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal repair are the two most commonly performed types of laparoscopic hernia repair procedures. Herein, we present a rare case of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum that ensued during a TEP inguinal hernia repair. A 73-year-old man presented for elective laparoscopic right-sided hernia repair. After intubation, a 10-mm and two 5-mm trocars were placed in the peri-umbilical and midline area, respectively. A balloon dissector was inserted from the 10-mm trocar to develop the retro-rectus space and carbon dioxide was insufflated up to a pressure of 14 mmHg. About 55 min after insufflation, the patient presented subcutaneous emphysema, oxygen saturation dropped from 100% to 96% and pCO2 increased to 55 mmHg. Due to concerns for pulmonary embolism, he immediately underwent a chest computed tomography, which revealed pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema extended throughout the neck, thorax and upper abdomen. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with oral analgesia and supplemental oxygen and was discharged on the 4th post-operative day without any further complications.
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Ganglioneuroma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma: Feasibility of adrenal-sparing surgery p. 389
Rohit Ranjan, Ankur Mittal, Satish Kumar Ranjan, Vikas Panwar, Harkirat Singh Talwar
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_147_20  
Adrenal ganglioneuromas (GNs) are very rare tumours that originate from neural crest cells. Most of the time, they are diagnosed incidentally as they are usually non-functional and remain asymptomatic. Nowadays, they are being detected more often due to better availability of imaging facilities such as computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Minimally invasive adrenalectomy (laparoscopic or robotic) remains the standard of care for such lesions. Hereby, we report a case of a 15-year-old young girl with right adrenal incidentaloma which was diagnosed on CT with the features suggestive of GN. She underwent robot-assisted excision of the mass with adrenal-sparing surgery. Histopathology revealed benign GN and no adjuvant treatment was required. As GN is not known for recurrence or metastasis, minimal invasive adrenal-sparing surgery should be a preferred modality of choice.
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Successful endoscopic treatment of an obstructing gastric antral web in a paediatric patient: A case report p. 392
Bing-Bing Ren, Kui Jiang, Tao Wang, Da-Qing Sun
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_200_20  
Gastric antral web (GAW) is a rare anomaly of the gastric antrum and can result in gastric outlet obstruction. Currently, endoscopic treatment of GAW is considered challenging due to high technical requirements and restenosis. Herein, we present a rare case of a paediatric patient with GAW cured by endoscopic transection and partial resection of the web. An 8-year-old boy was admitted because of a 9-month history of postprandial fullness and intermittent non-bilious vomiting of gastric contents. On performing upper gastrointestinal contrast and gastroscopy, the diagnosis of GAW was confirmed. Then, three electroincisions were performed in a radial fashion. Moreover, about a third of the web located in the larger curvature was resected. On follow-up for 6 months, the patient was completely relieved of the postprandial fullness and non-bilious vomiting. Hence, endoscopic treatment for GAW was considered safe and effective for this case. Furthermore, partial resection of the web contributed in avoiding restenosis.
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HOW I DO IT Top

Thoracoscopic oesophago-oesophagostomy in the prone position for oesophageal stenosis caused by dilated azygos vein in polysplenia-associated heterotaxy p. 395
Rajesh Bhojwani, Nikhil Jain
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_313_20  PMID:33605935
Background: Heterotaxy syndrome is associated with a plethora of cardiovascular and other multi-system anomalies with a high childhood mortality. A dilated azygos vein as part of the polysplenia variant of heterotaxy syndrome may cause oesophageal stenosis owing to a prolonged compression. We describe our technique of extramediastinal oesophago-oesophagostomy in the prone position for this rare congenital syndromic malformation with an excellent outcome. Patients and Methods: A 17-year-old boy with heterotaxy syndrome presented with intermittent dysphagia and postprandial emesis with failure to thrive. Despite the presence of diverse anatomic abnormalities, it was only his symptom of dysphagia due to oesophageal stricture that merited surgical intervention. He underwent an azygos-preserving extramediastinal oesophago-oesophagostomy in the prone position without segmental resection with the establishment of continuity using a modified Collard-type anastomosis. Results: The patient had an uneventful convalescence, with imaging after 1 year showing no re-stenosis. After a follow-up of 3 years, the patient is free of symptoms and has gained weight. Conclusion: Oesophageal stenosis may result from prolonged compression by anomalous vasculature. An isolated correctable anatomic derangement, young age with good functional reserve, other associated anomalies not causing any symptoms, the physiological advantages of executing the surgery in a prone position and availability of expertise in minimally invasive surgery ensured excellent outcomes. The hitherto unreported technique may open up avenues for further research regarding the behaviour of the oesophageal muscular tube with transection and re-anastomosis for rare benign abnormalities.
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The technique of precise and systematic vascular control during robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary and pancreatic tumours p. 399
Raja Kalayarasan, MS Gautham, Senthil Gnanasekaran, Biju Pottakkat
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_239_20  PMID:33885010
Robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains one of the most advanced robotic procedures. Improved ergonomics and stable 3D vision with robotic platform helped overcome the technical challenges of pancreatic reconstruction in minimally invasive PD. However, inadequate understanding of the complex vascular anatomy of the pancreatic head and uncinate process often results in intra-operative bleeding and prolongs the learning curve. The technique of precise identification and systematic control of the vessels supplying the head and the uncinate process is described in this report. A good understanding of the common vascular anatomy and variations along with stepwise precise vascular control described in this report could minimise intra-operative bleeding and shorten the learning curve associated with robotic PD.
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Minimally invasive esophagectomy: Preservation of arch of Azygos vein in prone position p. 405
Madhabananda Kar, Mohammed Imaduddin, Dillip K Muduly, Mahesh Sultania, Tim Houghton, Manas Kumar Panigrahi, Satyajeet Misra, Susama Patra, Sudipta Mohakud
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_267_20  PMID:33885015
Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for oesophageal cancer has gained wide popularity in recent years due to its improved morbidity and mortality outcomes. We describe our modified technique of MIE in prone position with preservation of the arch of azygos vein. In our experience with 14 patients, the mean operative duration was 378 min (standard deviation [SD] 378 ± 59 min) and the mean blood loss was 390 ml (SD 390 ± 142 ml). The mean lymph node count was 28 (range 17–54). The Visick score was I in 12 (85.7%) patients and II in 2 (14.3%) patients at follow-up. The preservation of azygos vein arch is a technically feasible procedure and may be associated with a better quality of life outcome.
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Robotic left colectomy with double indocyanine green guidance and intracorporeal anastomoses p. 408
Jan Grosek, Aleš Tomažic
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_213_20  PMID:33885027
Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment of colon cancer. Lymphatic drainage of splenic flexure colon cancer is variable, and the exact site of lymphatic dissection is uncertain. Hence, a true consensus of what kind of colectomy should be performed for tumours of the splenic flexure is lacking. Segmental left colectomy (splenic flexure colectomy) (extended), left colectomy as well as subtotal colectomy (extended right colectomy) all have their proponents. Robotic colectomy addresses the limitations of straight laparoscopic colon resections. We report our technique of single-docking totally robotic left hemicolectomy for splenic flexure adenocarcinoma using Da Vinci Xi® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, USA) with indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence for the assessment of both the lymph nodes and intestinal blood flow in real time.
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HOW I DO IT DIFFERENTLY Top

A different suturing method of the duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy for the normal pancreatic duct in laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy p. 412
Ziyao Wang, Xin Wang, Nengwen Ke
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_298_20  PMID:33885032
Although laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is safe and widely used in clinical practice, pancreaticojejunostomy is still one of the most challenging parts of LPD surgery. We introduce a simpler method of pancreaticoenterostomy which reduces the technical complexity and produces acceptable results.
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Hand-assisted robotic surgery in the abdominal phase of robot-assisted oesophagectomy p. 415
Shinsuke Sato, Kazuya Higashizono, Erina Nagai, Yusuke Taki, Masato Nishida, Masaya Watanabe, Noriyuki Oba
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_68_20  PMID:32964879
Robot-assisted minimally invasive oesophagectomy (RAMIE) has been developed to overcome the technical limitations of conventional thoracoscopic oesophagectomy. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) is used as a practical and useful technique during the abdominal phase of thoracoscopic oesophagectomy. During RAMIE, a robotic vessel sealer cannot be used with HALS; another vessel sealer or ultrasonic coagulating device for laparoscopic surgery is required. We report an initial experiment using hand-assisted robotic surgery (HARS) for abdominal manipulation during RAMIE as a novel method. Under the pneumoperitoneum induced by insufflating the abdomen to 10 mmHg with carbon dioxide, the assistant surgeon lifted the stomach and greater omentum using the left hand through a 7 cm upper abdominal midline incision at approximately 2 cm below the xiphoid. Subsequently, gastric mobilisation was performed by robot-assisted surgery. Between January 2019 and February 2020, eight patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer underwent RAMIE with HARS at our hospital. The median operative time for extracorporeal manipulation and preparation for the roll-in of the robot was 39.5 min. The median console time was 47.5 min. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the use of the robot and no in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, HARS seems to be feasible and safe for abdominal manipulation during oesophageal cancer surgery.
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IMAGES IN LAPAROSCOPY Top

A case of Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma with synchronous low-grade Appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and Pseudomyxoma peritonei p. 418
Shweta Raje, Sharda Arvind, Gayatri Rao
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_177_20  PMID:33605928
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare condition usually associated with ruptured low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix. Rarely, PMP can originate from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. However, the coexistence of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and appendiceal mucinous neoplasm has not been reported. We present the case of a post-menopausal woman with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma with unexpected low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and PMP.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

The story behind the time characteristics of shoulder pain after laparoscopic surgery p. 421
Xinyou Li, Kezhong Li
DOI:10.4103/jmas.JMAS_11_21  PMID:33885008
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2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04