Users Online : 90 About us |  Subscribe |  e-Alerts  | Feedback | Login   |   
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery Current Issue | Archives | Ahead Of Print Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
           Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
 ¤   Similar in PUBMED
 ¤  Search Pubmed for
 ¤  Search in Google Scholar for
 ¤Related articles
 ¤   Article in PDF (1,557 KB)
 ¤   Citation Manager
 ¤   Access Statistics
 ¤   Reader Comments
 ¤   Email Alert *
 ¤   Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 ¤  Abstract
 ¤ Introduction
 ¤ Case Report
 ¤ Discussion
 ¤  Type II choledoc...
 ¤  References
 ¤  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded46    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


 Table of Contents     
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 259-261

Laparoscopic excision of a Type II choledochal cyst with cystolithiasis

Department of General Surgery, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission19-Aug-2020
Date of Decision06-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance07-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication10-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rekha Arcot
Sukrithi, 1/756, Sabari Nagar Extension, Mugallivakkam, Chennai - 600 125, Tamil Nadu
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_181_20

Rights and Permissions

 ¤ Abstract 

Choledochal cysts can present with abdominal pain, jaundice and stones.MRI is the standard imaging tool and the type of biliary enteric anastomosis depends on the cyst type.

Keywords: Choledochal cyst, laparoscopic excision, Type II

How to cite this article:
Ravichandran A, Pichaimuthu A, Arcot R. Laparoscopic excision of a Type II choledochal cyst with cystolithiasis. J Min Access Surg 2021;17:259-61

How to cite this URL:
Ravichandran A, Pichaimuthu A, Arcot R. Laparoscopic excision of a Type II choledochal cyst with cystolithiasis. J Min Access Surg [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 6];17:259-61. Available from:

 ¤ Introduction Top

Choledochal cyst (CDC) is a rare congenital dilatation of the bile ducts. The estimated incidence varies between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 150,000. The incidence is higher in women, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:3.

 ¤ Case Report Top

A 22 year old female presented with the complaints of right hypochondria pain, fever and loose stools for 2 weeks. The patient had no jaundice, clay-coloured stools or pruritus. Liver function tests and total leucocyte counts were normal, and ultrasound showed the presence of stones in the gall bladder and hence a differential diagnosis of a double gall bladder was made. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of the biliary system showed a saccular dilatation in the region of the hepatic duct with multiple calculi [Figure 1]. The patient was taken for laparoscopy where a type 2 presents as a diverticulum—consistent CDC was identified.
Figure 1: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showing two saccular dilatations

Click here to view

On laparoscopy, the gall bladder fossa showed two saccular swellings and a CDC was identified [Figure 2]. It was an outpouching (lateral diverticulum) from the common hepatic duct, just proximal to the insertion of the cystic duct. The CDC was carefully dissected and the mouth of the diverticulum was clipped and divided [Figure 3]. The cyst was dissected free, and cholecystectomy and complete excision of the cyst was done. Histopathology showed a normal gall bladder, and the CDC showed a fibrocollagenous stroma with multiple stones.
Figure 2: The gall bladder and the choledochal cyst at the start of dissection

Click here to view
Figure 3: The clips after excision of cyst and the gall bladder

Click here to view

 ¤ Discussion Top

CDCs represent a congenital, non-familial, anomalous dilatation of the biliary system.[1] The widely accepted theory is that cystic dilatation is related to an anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) leading to biliary reflux, causing inflammation and dilatation. In a study conducted by Song et al.,[2] APBDU accounted for 56%–95% of the cases of CDCs. Abnormal function and spasm of the  Sphincter of Oddi More Details may result in pancreatic juice reflux into the biliary tree, resulting in a cyst formation. Obstruction of the common bile duct is another aetiological theory for CDCs.

CDCs are classified as Type I to Type V, as shown in [Figure 4]. They are classified by Todani et al. into five subtypes.[3] The classic triad of jaundice, right upper quadrant mass and abdominal pain is a rare presentation, with two of the symptoms seen most commonly in children (85%) than in adults (15%). Often, CDCs present with biliary dyskinesia, stones, pancreatitis, hepatic abscess and cholangitis.[4],[5] Ultrasound shows a characteristic cystic or fusiform dilatation of the common hepatic duct or the intrahepatic duct, distinct from the gall bladder.[6] MRCP is the diagnostic method of choice for biliary ductal pathologies and is a safe, non-invasive pre-operative investigation.
Figure 4: The type of choledochal cysts

Click here to view

Cystolithiasis (soft, earthy and pigmented) is seen in 70% of CDCs. Pancreatitis is another complication caused by activation of enzymes due to reflux caused by the anomalous union of the ducts. Portal hypertension may arise due to secondary hepatic fibrosis with a higher association with Caroli's disease. Cholangitis is a common complication and may be the only presenting feature. In older patients with repeated cholangitis and marked pericystic inflammation, this disease may be best managed with resection of the anterolateral part of the cyst followed by an endocystic resection of the lining, leaving the back wall adjacent to the portal vein in place, as reported by Lilly.[7] The most common malignancies are cholangiocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma arising from the cyst is grim, with survival in the range of 6–20 months.

 ¤ Type II choledochal cyst with cystolithiasis Top

The mainstay of management in CDC is complete excision followed by a biliary-enteric anastomosis as there is a concern of malignant transformation in these cysts. There is a high incidence of cholangitis secondary to stricture (10%–25%) following the anastomosis.[8] The clinical results of total cystectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy have been excellent. Studies have found the cumulative incidence of subsequent biliary malignancy to be 1.6% at 15 years, 3.9% at 20 years and 11.3% at 25 years after cyst excision, suggesting that the risk of biliary malignancy in the remnant bile duct increases more than 15 years after cyst excision[9],[10] and there is a need for lifelong follow-up.[11]

The treatment of choice for Type II cysts arising as a lateral diverticulum of the common bile duct is surgical excision. Depending on the size of the neck of the cyst at the junction with the common bile duct, the neck may be closed primarily or with T-tube decompression of the common bile duct.

Laparoscopic excision and biliary-enteric anastomosis have been reported in literature, and more than 200 cases have been documented predominantly from the Far East.[12],[13] Increasing familiarity with intracorporeal suturing and better optics have advanced procedures on the biliary tree. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery has also been documented.[14]

This is a rare clipping of a diverticulum-like, Type II CDC.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the legal guardian has given his consent for images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The guardian understands that names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 ¤ References Top

Alonso-Lej F, Rever WB Jr., Pessagno DJ. Congenital choledochal cysts, with a report of 2, and an analysis of 94 cases. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1959;108:1-30.  Back to cited text no. 1
Song HK, Kim MH, Myung SJ, Lee SK, Kim HJ, Yoo KS, et al. Choledochal cyst associated the with anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct (AUPBD) has a more grave clinical course than choledochal cyst alone. Korean J Intern Med 1999;14:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Todani T, Watanabe Y, Narusue M, Tabuchi K, Okajima K. Congenital bile duct cysts: Classification, operative procedures, and review of thirty-seven cases including cancer arising from choledochal cyst. Am J Surg 1977;134:263-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Visser BC, Suh I, Way LW, Kang SM. Congenital choledochal cysts in adults. Arch Surg 2004;139:855-62.  Back to cited text no. 4
Kilambi R, Singh AN, Madhusudhan KS, Das P, Pal S. Choledochal cyst of the proximal cystic duct: A taxonomical and therapeutic conundrum. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2018;100:e34-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
Ulas M, Polat E, Karaman K, Dalgic T, Ercan M, Ozer I, et al. Management of choledochal cysts in adults: A retrospective analysis of 23 patients. Hepatogastroenterology 2012;59:1155-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Lilly JR. The surgical treatment of choledochal cyst. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979;149:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
Chijiiwa K, Koga A. Surgical management and long-term follow-up of patients with choledochal cysts. Am J Surg 1993;165:238-42.  Back to cited text no. 8
Ohashi T, Wakai T, Kubota M, Matsuda Y, Arai Y, Ohyama T, et al. Risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:243-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
Lee SE, Jang JY, Lee YJ, Choi DW, Lee WJ, Cho BH, et al. Choledochal cyst and associated malignant tumors in adults: A multicenter survey in South Korea. Arch Surg 2011;146:1178-84.  Back to cited text no. 10
Madadi-Sanjani O, Wirth TC, Kuebler JF, Petersen C, Ure BM. Choledochal cyst and malignancy: A plea for lifelong follow-up. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2019;29:143-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Qiao G, Li L, Li S, Tang S, Wang B, Xi H, et al. Laparoscopic cyst excision and Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy for children with choledochal cysts in China: A multicenter study. Surg Endosc 2015;29:140-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
Senthilnathan P, Patel ND, Nair AS, Nalankilli VP, Vijay A, Palanivelu C. Laparoscopic management of choledochal cyst-technical modifications and outcome analysis. World J Surg 2015;39:2550-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
Chang J, Walsh RM, El-Hayek K. Hybrid laparoscopic-robotic management of type IVa choledochal cyst in the setting of prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Video case report and review of the literature. Surg Endosc 2015;29:1648-54.  Back to cited text no. 14


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]


Print this article  Email this article


© 2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04