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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 227-231

Effects of dexmedetomidine on oxygenation during one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery in adults

1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA
2 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA
3 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Correspondence Address:
Joseph D Tobias
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9941.85645

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Study Objective : To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in adults undergoing thoracic surgery. Design : Prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial. Setting : Tertiary care, University-based hospital. Patients : Nineteen adult patients undergoing thoracic surgery requiring OLV. Interventions : During inhalational anesthesia with desflurane, patients were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (bolus dose of 0.3 μg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/hr) or saline placebo. Measurements : Three arterial blood gas samples (ABG) were obtained to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on oxygenation. Secondary outcomes included differences in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), end-tidal desflurane concentration required to maintain the bispectral index (BIS) at 40-60, supplemental fentanyl to maintain hemodynamic stability, and phenylephrine to keep the mean arterial pressure (MAP) within 10% of baseline values. Main Results : Oxygenation during OLV did not change following the administration of dexmedetomidine (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 188 ± 115 in dexmedetomidine patients versus 135 ± 70 mmHg in placebo patients). There were no differences in hemodynamic variables or depth of anaesthesia between the two groups. With the administration of dexmedetomidine, there was a decrease in the expired concentration of desflurane required to maintain the BIS at 40-60 when compared with the control group (4.5 ± 0.8% versus 5.1 ± 0.8%). In patients receiving dexmedetomidine, fentanyl requirements were decreased when compared to placebo (2.7 μg/kg/patient versus 3.1 μg/kg/patient). However, more patients receiving dexmedetomidine required phenylephrine to maintain hemodynamic stability (6 of 9 patients versus 3 of 10 patients) and the total dose of phenylephrine was greater in patients receiving dexmedetomidine when compared with placebo 10.3 μg/kg/patient versus 1.1 μg/kg/patient). Conclusion : Dexmedetomidine does not adversely affect oxygenation during OLV in adults undergoing thoracic surgical procedures. The improvement in oxygenation in the dexmedetomidine patients may be related to a decrease in the requirements for inhalational anaesthetic agents thereby limiting its effects on HPV.


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