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REVIEW ARTICLE
Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery
Jaydeep H Palep
January-March 2009, 5(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.51313  PMID:19547687
The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.
  50 7,855 672
Diagnosis and management of Spigelian hernia: A review of literature and our experience
T Mittal, V Kumar, R Khullar, A Sharma, V Soni, M Baijal, PK Chowbey
October-December 2008, 4(4):95-98
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.45204  PMID:19547696
Spigelian hernia occurs through slit like defect in the anterior abdominal wall adjacent to the semilunar line. Most of spigelian hernias occur in the lower abdomen where the posterior sheath is deficient. The hernia ring is a well-defined defect in the transverses aponeurosis. The hernial sac, surrounded by extraperitoneal fatty tissue, is often interparietal passing through the transversus and the internal oblique aponeuroses and then spreading out beneath the intact aponeurosis of the external oblique. Spigelian hernia is in itself very rare and more over it is difficult to diagnose clinically. It has been estimated that it constitutes 0.12% of abdominal wall hernias. The spigelian hernia has been repaired by both conventional and laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic management of spigelian hernia is well established. Most of the authors have managed it by transperitoneal approach either by placing the mesh in intraperitoneal position or by raising the peritoneal flap and placing the mesh in extraperitoneal space. There have also been case reports of management of spigelian hernia by total extraperitoneal approach. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of ten patients between 1997 and 2007. Eight patients (8/10) presented with abdominal pain and two patients (2/10) were asymptomatic. In six patients (6/10) we performed an intraperitoneal onlay IPOM repair, in two patients (2/10) transabdominal preperitoneal repair (TAPP), and in two (2/10) total extraperitoneal repair (TEP). There were no recurrences, or other morbidity at mean follow up period of 3.2 years (range 6 months to 10 years).
  28 30,165 552
GALLBLADDER
Postoperative pain after cholecystectomy: Conventional laparoscopy versus single-incision laparoscopic surgery
A Prasad, KA Mukherjee, S Kaul, M Kaur
January-March 2011, 7(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72370  PMID:21197238
Background: This study was undertaken to compare the postoperative pain after cholecystectomy done by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) versus conventional four-port laparoscopy [conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS)]. SILS is a feasible and a promising method for cholecystectomy. It is possible to do this procedure without the use of special equipments. While there are cosmetic advantages to SILS, it is not clear whether or not the pain is also reduced. Methods: Patients undergoing cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones were offered the choice of the two methods and the first 100 consecutive patients from each group were included in this observational study. Only conventional instruments were used to keep the cost of surgery comparable. Pain scores were checked 8 hours after the surgery using visual analogue score. Student's t test was done to check the statistical significance. Results: We observed no significant difference in the pain score between the CLS and SILS (2.78 versus 2.62). The operative time (OT) was significantly lower in the CLS group (28 versus 67 minutes). Comparing the OTs of the first 50 patients undergoing SILS with the second 50 patients showed a significantly lower OT (79 versus 54 minutes). We also compared the pain score between these three groups. The second half of SILS group had a significantly lower pain score compared to the first half (2.58 versus 2.84). This group also had a lower pain score compared to conventional laparoscopy group but the difference was not statistically significant (2.58 versus 2.78). Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in the overall postoperative pain as OT decreases with surgeon's experience in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, postoperative pain at 8 hours appears to favour this method over conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  24 4,190 221
GI SURGERY
Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art
Michele Diana, Parag Dhumane, RA Cahill, N Mortensen, Joel Leroy, Jacques Marescaux
January-March 2011, 7(1):52-60
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72382  PMID:21197243
Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS) surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%). Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.
  23 3,681 204
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Laparoscopic versus open pyeloplasty: Comparison of two surgical approaches- a single centre experience of three years
Punit Bansal, Aman Gupta, Ritesh Mongha, Srinivas Narayan, AK Kundu, SC Chakraborty, RK Das, MK Bera
July-September 2008, 4(3):76-79
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.43091  PMID:19547693
Background: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) causes hydronephrosis and progressive renal impairment may ensue if left uncorrected. Open pyeloplasty remains the standard against which new technique must be compared. We compared laparoscopic (LP) and open pyeloplasty (OP) in a randomized prospective trial. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized study was done from January 2004 to January 2007 in which a total of 28 laparoscopic and 34 open pyeloplasty were done. All laparoscopic pyeloplasties were performed transperitoneally. Standard open Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty, spiral flap or VY plasty was done depending on anatomic consideration. Patients were followed with DTPA scan at three months and IVP at six months. Perioperative parameters including operative time, analgesic use, hospital stay, and complication and success rates were compared. Results: Mean total operative time with stent placement in LP group was 244.2 min (188-300 min) compared to 122 min (100-140 min) in OP group. Compared to OP group, the post operative diclofenac requirement was significantly less in LP group (mean 107.14 mg) and OP group required mean of (682.35 mg). The duration of analgesic requirement was also significantly less in LP group. The postoperative hospital stay in LP was mean 3.14 Days (2-7 days) significantly less than the open group mean of 8.29 days (7-11 days). Conclusion: LP has a minimal level of morbidity and short hospital stay compared to open approach. Although, laparoscopic pyeloplasty has the disadvantages of longer operative time and requires significant skill of intracorporeal knotting but it is here to stay and represents an emerging standard of care.
  22 6,049 320
Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy versus conventional thyroidectomy: A single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial
Gouda M El-Labban
October-December 2009, 5(4):97-102
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.59307  PMID:20407568
We aimed to test the hypothesis that Minimally Invasive Video-assisted Thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as to the open conventional surgery, when dealing with patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions, in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain and hospital stay. Materials And Methods: This was a single-blinded randomised controlled trial comparing the MIVAT with conventional thyroidectomy. The primary endpoints of the study were measurement of postoperative pain after 24 and 48 hours from operation and self-rated patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome three months postoperatively. The secondary outcome measures were operative time, incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative haematoma formation, length of incision, and duration of hospital stay. Results: Operative time was significantly less with open thyroidectomy than with MIVAT, while MIVAT was associated with less pain 24 hours postoperatively. Blood loss did not reach significance between procedures. Comparisons between the two procedures with regard to pain scores after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, depicted statistically significant differences in favour of the MIVAT after 24 hours. MIVAT was associated with less scarring and more satisfactory cosmetic results. There were statistically no significant differences between both procedures for the presence of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism. Conclusions: MIVAT is a safe procedure that produces outcomes, in view of short-term adverse events, similar to those of open thyroidectomy, and is superior in terms of immediate postoperative pain and cosmetic results.
  21 3,547 327
OVERVIEW
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery - Current status and controversies
Prashanth P Rao, Pradeep P Rao, Sonali Bhagwat
January-March 2011, 7(1):6-16
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72360  PMID:21197236
Scarless surgery is the Holy Grail of surgery and the very raison d'etre of Minimal Access Surgery was the reduction of scars and thereby pain and suffering of the patients. The work of Muhe and Mouret in the late 80s, paved the way for mainstream laparoscopic procedures and it rapidly became the method of choice for many intra-abdominal procedures. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is a very exciting new modality in the field of minimal access surgery which works for further reducing the scars of standard laparoscopy and towards scarless surgery. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) was developed for scarless surgery, but did not gain popularity due to a variety of reasons. NOTES stands for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery, a term coined by a consortium in 2005. NOTES remains a research technique with only a few clinical cases having been reported. The lack of success of NOTES seems to have spurred on the interest in single-incision laparoscopy as an eminently doable technique in the present with minimum visible scarring, rendering a 'scarless' effect. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is, a term coined by a multidisciplinary consortium in 2008 for single-incision laparoscopic surgery. These are complementary technologies with similar difficulties of access, lack of triangulation and inadequate instrumentation as of date. LESS seems to offer an advantage to surgeons with its familiar field of view and instruments similar to those used in conventional laparoscopy. LESS remains a evolving special technique used successfully in many a centre, but with a significant way to go before it becomes mainstream. It currently stands between standard laparoscopy and NOTES in the armamentarium of minimal access surgery. This article outlines the development of LESS giving an overview of all the techniques and devices available and likely to be available in the future.
  19 9,169 331
REVIEW ARTICLE
Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A review on the complications
Sofie Fransen, L Stassen, N Bouvy
January-March 2012, 8(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.91771  PMID:22303080
Background: The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of postoperative complications after single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed database. Search terms included single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, single port cholecystectomy, minimal invasive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, nearly scarless cholecystectomy and complications. Results: A total of 38 articles meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. A total of 1180 patients were selected to undergo single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Introduction of extra ports was necessary in 4% of the patients. Conversion to open cholecystectomy was required in 0.4% of the patients. Laparoscopic cholangiography was attempted in 4% of the patients. The incidence of major complications requiring surgical intervention or ERCP with stenting was 1.7%. The mortality rate was zero. Conclusion: Although the number of complications after single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy seems favourable, it is too early to conclude that single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure. Large randomised controlled trials will be necessary to further establish its safety.
  17 3,505 257
Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery
Avinash N Supe, Gaurav V Kulkarni, Pradnya A Supe
April-June 2010, 6(2):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.65161  PMID:20814508
Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.
  16 6,941 528
SYMPOSIUM
Tension free open inguinal hernia repair using an innovative self gripping semi-resorbable mesh
Philippe Chastan
July-September 2006, 2(3):139-143
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.27726  PMID:21187984
Aims: Inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein technique has become the most common procedure performed by general surgeons. Heavy weight polypropylene meshes have been reported to stimulate inflammatory reaction responsible for mesh shrinkage when scar tissue evolved. Additionally, some concerns remain regarding the relationship between chronic pain and mesh fixation technique. In order to reduce those drawbacks, we have developed a new mesh for anterior tension free inguinal hernia repair which exhibits self-gripping absorbable properties. Materials and Methods: 52 patients (69 hernias) were prospectivly operated with this mesh (SOFRADIM-France) made of low-weight isoelastic large pores knitted fabric which incorporated resorbable micro hooks that provides self gripping properties to the mesh during the first months post-implantation. The fixation of the mesh onto the tissues is significantly facilitated. The mesh is secured around the cord with a self gripping flap. After complete tissular ingrowth and resorption of the PLA hooks, the low-weight (40 g/m2) polypropylene mesh insures the long term wall reinforcement. Results: Peroperativly, no complication was reported, the mesh was easy to handle and to fix. Discharge was obtained at Day 1. No perioperative complication occurred, return to daily activities was obtained at Day 5.5. At one month, no neurological pain or other complications were described. Conclusions: Based on the first results of this clinical study, this unique concept of low density self gripping mesh should allows an efficient treatment of inguinal hernia. It should reduce postoperative complications and the extent of required suture fixation, making the procedure more reproducible
  15 11,055 450
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Is it safe and cost effective?
Athar Ali, Tabish Chawla, Abid Jamal
January-March 2009, 5(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.51314  PMID:19547682
Background : Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the most commonly performed minimal invasive surgery. However, practice of its use as an ambulatory surgery in our hospital settings is uncommon. Objective : To evaluate safety and cost effectiveness of LC as an ambulatory day care surgery. Study Design : Quasiexperimental. Setting : Department of surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods : Patients with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones were selected for Ambulatory LC. They were admitted electively on the same day and operated on in the morning hours and discharged after a check by the surgeon 6-8 hrs later. Results : Of fifty (n = 50) patients selected for ambulatory LC, 92% were discharged successfully after 6-8 hrs observation. No significant perioperative complications were noted. Unplanned admission and readmission rate was 8 and 2%, respectively. Cost saving for the daycare surgery was Rs. 6,200, Rs. 13,300, and Rs.22,800 per patient as compared to in patient general, semiprivate, and private ward package, respectively. Conclusion : Practice ambulatory LC is safe and cost-effective in selected patients with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones.
  14 5,283 569
SYMPOSIUM
Evaluation of various prosthetic materials and newer meshes for hernia repairs
HG Doctor
July-September 2006, 2(3):110-116
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.27721  PMID:21187889
The use of prosthesis has become essential for repair of all hernias since the recurrence rates are consistently lower when they are used. To fulfill this requirement, a variety of newer meshes have been engineered. An ideal prosthesis should be strong, pliable, non-allergenic, inert, non-biodegradable, non-carcinogenic and should stimulate adequate fibroblastic activity for optimum incorporation into the tissues. Prosthesis used for hernia repairs can be non-absorbable, composite (combination of absorbable and non-absorbable fibres) or with an absorbable or a non-absorbable barrier. Surgeons should acquire sufficient knowledge of different types of prosthesis so as to select an appropriate one for a given case. Non-absorbable or composite mesh is recommended for hernia repair where it will not come in contact with the bowel. Prosthesis with a barrier only should be used for intra-abdominal placement to prevent bowel adhesions since it is increasingly difficult to defend the use of a biomaterial that has no adhesion barriers. This review highlghts all these different types of meshes and their appropriate selection for a given hernia repair. Selection of the optimum size and its proper fixation is mandaory. Complications can be avoided or minimized with proper selection of mesh for a given case and by performing the surgery with a meticulous technique.
  14 9,826 610
REVIEW ARTICLE
Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature
Iqbal Singh
October-December 2009, 5(4):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.59305  PMID:20407566
Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM) for published series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy' (RPN) using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy'; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s), as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 ) renal neoplasm(s). It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.
  13 4,274 280
SYMPOSIUM
Light weight meshes in incisional hernia repair
Volker Schumpelick, Uwe Klinge, Raphael Rosch, Karsten Junge
July-September 2006, 2(3):117-123
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.27722  PMID:21187980
Incisional hernias remain one of the most common surgical complications with a long-term incidence of 10-20%. Increasing evidence of impaired wound healing in these patients supports routine use of an open prefascial, retromuscular mesh repair. Basic pathophysiologic principles dictate that for a successful long-term outcome and prevention of recurrence, a wide overlap underneath healthy tissue is required. Particularly in the neighborhood of osseous structures, only retromuscular placement allows sufficient subduction of the mesh by healthy tissue of at least 5 cm in all directions. Preparation must take into account the special anatomic features of the abdominal wall, especially in the area of the Linea alba and Linea semilunaris. Polypropylene is the material widely used for open mesh repair. New developments have led to low-weight, large-pore polypropylene prostheses, which are adjusted to the physiological requirements of the abdominal wall and permit proper tissue integration. These meshes provide the possibility of forming a scar net instead of a stiff scar plate and therefore help to avoid former known mesh complications.
  13 11,335 503
Hernia recurrence as a problem of biology and collagen
Uwe Klinge, Marcel Binnebosel, Raphael Rosch, Peter Mertens
July-September 2006, 2(3):151-154
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.27729  PMID:21187987
Usually an abdominal wall hernia is regarded as a mechanical problem with a local defect which has to be closed by technical means. Despite the introduction of several therapeutic improvements, recurrent hernias still appear in 10-15%. Therefore, reasons for a recurrence are discussed in a more fundamental way. It is assumed that a failure mainly depends on the quality of the repair. Correspondingly, in principle, the close causal relationship between the technical component and its failure during time is reflected by an s-shaped outcome curve. In contrast, the configuration of the outcome curve changes markedly if a breakdown is caused by numerous components. Then, the superposition of all incidence curves inevitably leads to a linear decline of the outcome curve without any s-shaped deformation. Regarding outcome curves after hernia repair, the cumulative incidences for recurrences of both incisional and inguinal hernia show a linear rise over years. Considering the configuration of outcome curves of patients with hernia disease, it may therefore be insufficient to explain a recurrence just by a failing technical repair. Rather, biological reasons should be suspected, such as a defective wound healing with impaired scarring process. Recent molecular-biological findings provide increasing evidence of underlying biochemical alterations in patients with recurrent hernia. Until predicting markers to identify patients with an impaired wound healing are available and considering the formation of insufficient scar as the underlying disease, the consequences for every surgical repair should be a supplementary reinforcement with nonabsorbable alloplastic nets as flat meshes with an extensive overlap.
  13 8,986 303
UNUSUAL CASES
Laparoscopic management of superior mesentric artery syndrome: A case report and review of literature
Ramesh Makam, Tulip Chamany, Vamsi Krishna Potluri, Prashanth J Varadaraju, Rajesh Murthy
July-September 2008, 4(3):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.43092  PMID:19547692
Superior mesentric artery syndrome is a rare cause of high small bowel obstruction, caused by compression of the transverse part of the duodenum in between the superior mesentric artery and aorta. Patients present with chronic abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. We report a case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, managed laparoscopically with laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy.
  13 4,512 263
CME ARTICLE
Anatomy relevant to cholecystectomy
Sanjay Nagral
April-June 2005, 1(2):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.16527  PMID:21206646
This review discusses anatomical facts that are of relevance to the performance of a safe cholecystectomy. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations contribute to the occurrence of major postoperative complications like biliary injuries following a cholecystectomy, the incidence being higher with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A look at the basic anatomy is therefore important for biliary and minimally invasive surgeons. This includes normal anatomy and variations of the biliary apparatus as well as the arterial supply to the gallbladder. Specific anatomical distortions due to the laparoscopic technique, their contribution in producing injury and a preventive strategy based on this understanding are discussed. Investigative modalities that may help in assessing anatomy are considered. Newer insights into the role of anatomic illusions as well as the role of a system-based approach to preventing injuries is also discussed.
  12 51,537 1,888
EDITORIAL
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: Past, present and future
Jonathan P Pearl, Jeffrey L Ponsky
April-June 2007, 3(2):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.33271  PMID:21124650
  12 13,166 1,036
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of obesity on the short-term outcome of laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer
Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Shinichiro Niwa, Masanobu Tanaka, Michitoshi Goto, Hironobu Sengoku, Yuichi Tomiki
July-September 2007, 3(3):98-103
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.37192  PMID:19789665
Purpose: Obesity has been generally associated with increased surgical risk. However, data on the outcome of laparoscopic colectomy in obese and non-obese patients are controversial. The aim of this study is to assess the short-term outcome of laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in obese patients as compared with non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine patients who underwent laparoscopic anterior resection for CRC during the past six years were retrospectively evaluated. The patients with CRC involving the sigmoid or rectosigmoid colon and subjected to intracorporeal anastomosis were included in this study. They were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI): obese (BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 ), pre-obese (BMI: 25.0-27.9 kg/m 2 ) and non-obese (BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 ). Results: Nine patients (13.0 %) were obese, 11 patients (15.9%) were pre-obese and 49 patients (71.1%) were non-obese. Patient characteristics, such as age, gender, tumor location, previous laparotomy, were similar among the three groups. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complications and conversion rates. Postoperative complications and duration of postoperative hospital stay were also similar among the three groups. However, two of the three patients in the pre-obese group had to be operated on again due to incarceration of the small bowel into a port site. Conclusions: Laparoscopic colectomy can be safely performed in obese patients with short-term results similar to those obtained in non-obese and pre-obese patients.
  12 3,799 263
Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective randomised comparison of clinical results of 140 cases
Ramon Vilallonga, Umut Barbaros, Aziz Sümer, Tugrul Demirel, José Manuel Fort, Oscar González, Nivardo Rodriguez, Manuel Armengol Carrasco
July-September 2012, 8(3):74-78
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.97586  
Introduction: A novel single port access (SPA) cholecystectomy approach is described in this study. We have designed a randomised comparative study in order to elucidate any possible differences between the standard treatment and this novel technique. Materials and Methods: Between July 2009 and March 2010, 140 adult patients with gallbladder pathologies were enrolled in this multicentre study. Two surgeons (RV and UB) randomised patients to either a standard laparoscopic (SL) approach group or to an SPA cholecystectomy group. Two types of trocars were used for this study: the TriPort TM and the SILS TM Port. Outcomes including blood loss, operative time, complications, length of stay and pain were recorded. Results: There were 69 patients in the SPA group and 71 patients in the SL group. The mean age of the patients was 43.2 (17-77) for the SPA group and 42.6 (19-70) for the SL group. The mean operative time was 63.9 min in the SPA group and 58.4 min in the SL group. For one patient, the SPA procedure was converted to a standard laparoscopic technique and to open approach in the SL group. Complications occurred in eight patients: Five seromas (two in the SPA group) and three hernias (one in the SPA group).The mean hospital stay was 38.5 h in the SPA group and 24.1 h in the SL group. Pain was evaluated and was 2 in the SPA and 2.9 in the SL group, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) after 24 h (P<0.001). The degree of satisfaction was higher in the SPA group (8.3 versus 6.7). Similar results were found for the aesthetic result (8.8 versus 7.5). (P<0.001). Conclusion: Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be feasible and safe. When technical difficulties arise, early conversion to a standard laparoscopic technique is advised to avoid serious complications. The SPA approach can be undertaken without the expense of additional operative time and provides patients with minimal scarring. The cosmetic results and the degree of satisfaction appear to be significant for the SPA approach.
  12 2,549 214
GYNECOLOGY
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery
Amanda Nickles Fader, Kimberly L Levinson, Camille C Gunderson, Abigail D Winder, Pedro F Escobar
January-March 2011, 7(1):71-77
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.72387  PMID:21197247
Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.
  11 5,468 182
UNUSUAL CASES
Large primary splenic cyst: A laparoscopic technique
M Geraghty, IZ Khan, KC Conlon
January-March 2009, 5(1):14-16
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.51315  PMID:19547686
Splenic cysts are rare lesions with around 800 cases reported in the world literature. Traditionally splenectomy was the treatment of choice. However, with the recognition of the important immunological function of the spleen, new techniques to preserve splenic function have been developed. This case emphasizes that in selected cases splenic preservation is appropriate.
  11 10,603 479
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the management of penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma
S Milanchi, I Makey, R McKenna, DR Margulies
July-September 2009, 5(3):63-66
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.58499  PMID:20040799
Background: The role of video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) is still being defined in the management of thoracic trauma. We report our trauma cases managed by VATS and review the role of VATS in the management of thoracic trauma. Materials and Methods: All the trauma patients who underwent VATS from 2000 to 2007 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Results: Twenty-three trauma patients underwent 25 cases of VATS. The most common indication for VATS was retained haemothorax. Thoracotomy was avoided in 21 patients. VATS failed in two cases. On an average VATS was performed on trauma day seven (range 1-26) and the length of hospital stay was 20 days (range 3-58). There was no mortality. VATS was performed in an emergency (day 1-2), or in the early (day 2-7) or late (after day 7) phases of trauma. Conclusion: VATS can be performed safely for the management of thoracic traumas. VATS can be performed before or after thoracotomy and at any stage of trauma. The use of VATS in trauma has a trimodal distribution (emergent, early, late), each with different indications.
  10 2,583 240
REVIEW ARTICLE
Twenty years after Erich Muhe: Persisting controversies with the gold standard of laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Kalpesh Jani, PS Rajan, K Sendhilkumar, C Palanivelu
April-June 2006, 2(2):49-58
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.26646  PMID:21170235
This review article is a tribute to the genius of Professor Erich Muhe, a man ahead of his times. We trace the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and detail the tribulations faced by Muhe. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we take another look at some of the controversies surrounding this gold standard in the management of gallbladder disease
  10 12,140 487
Emerging role of robotics in urology
Rajeev Kumar, Ashok K Hemal
October-December 2005, 1(4):202-210
DOI:10.4103/0972-9941.19268  PMID:21206664
Robotic assistance is one of the latest additions to the field of laparoscopic surgery. The most commonly used robotic device in Urology is the da Vinci ® system of which over 200 devices are installed worldwide including 3 in India. This robot consists of three or four arms, one of which is used to hold and manipulate the laparoscopic camera while the others are used to manipulate specialized laparoscopic instruments with endowrist ® technology that allows 7 degrees of freedom. The robot is currently used primarily for radical prostatectomies where complex dissection and reconstruction can be performed in less than 2 hours with excellent outcomes. There is a progressive increase in the number of surgeries being performed by this device which allows laparoscopy naοve surgeons to offer the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to their patients. The other surgeries where this device has been used to benefit are pyeloplasty, cystectomy with urinary diversion, nephrectomy and ureteric re-implant. The principal drawbacks of the device are the steep cost of machine and disposables. However, the benefits achieved in terms of improved surgical precision, magnified 3 dimensional vision, scaling of movements, remote surgery and as a teaching tools will help the robot establish a definitive place in the urologic armamentarium.
  10 9,470 388
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© 2004 Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th August '04