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 ¤ Standard Technique
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 Table of Contents     
HOW I DO IT DIFFERENTLY?
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 94-96
 

Dulucq's technique for laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernioplasty


1 Department of Surgery, Sanjeevani Hospital, Global Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of GI and Minimal Access Surgery, Global Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission15-Aug-2018
Date of Acceptance26-Aug-2018
Date of Web Publication20-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohit Agrawal
Department of GI and Minimal Access Surgery, Global Hospitals, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_66_18

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 ¤ Abstract 

Background: Inguinal hernia repair has been a controversial area in surgical practice. Its complexity is reflected by the fact that numerous different procedures including both open and laparoscopic techniques are in use today. Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair is preferred over transabdominal pre-peritoneal repair as the peritoneum is not breached and also due to fewer intra-abdominal complications. This is the most elegant technique but rather difficult to perform.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe Dulucq's technique for inguinal hernia repair and the use of three-dimensional mesh without fixation in laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernioplasty.
Methods: Surgical technique of laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair is detailed in the text.
Results: A total of 945 hernia repairs were included in the study. The hernias were repaired by Dulucq's technique. Mean operative time was 45 min in unilateral hernia and 65 min in bilateral hernia. There were no serious complications.
Conclusion: The laparoscopic TEP hernioplasty by Dulucq's technique is feasible with fewer intra-abdominal complications. The dissection must always be done with the same stages with minimal monopolar diathermy and patient in a slight Trendelenburg position.


Keywords: Dulucq's technique, inguinal hernia repair, laparoscopic surgery, totally extraperitoneal hernia repair


How to cite this article:
Agrawal M, Bhagwat S, Rao P. Dulucq's technique for laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernioplasty. J Min Access Surg 2020;16:94-6

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal M, Bhagwat S, Rao P. Dulucq's technique for laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernioplasty. J Min Access Surg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jan 29];16:94-6. Available from: http://www.journalofmas.com/text.asp?2020/16/1/94/245151



 ¤ Introduction Top


The inguinal hernia repair has been a controversial area in surgical practice ever since it was conceived.[1] The fact that numerous different procedures are in use reflects the complexity of inguinal hernia and its repair. The totally extraperitoneal (TEP) method allows access to the pre-peritoneal space and avoids the need for a peritoneal incision.[2] The establishment of this technique by Dulucq in Europe may be considered a logical further development of transabdominal pre-peritoneal hernia repair.[3] We describe and discuss our techniques and modifications when accessing the pre-peritoneal space and using three-dimensional (3D) mesh without fixation in laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernioplasty.


 ¤ Standard Technique Top


Traditional TEP repair is performed using three ports placed in the pre-peritoneal space.

  1. The first 10-mm port is placed using an open technique.[4] A subumbilical transverse skin incision is made and then advanced slightly off the midline, in front of the anterior rectus sheath. If the fascial incision is placed in the midline, it will enter the peritoneal cavity. The anterior sheath is opened transversely, and the rectus muscle is swept laterally and retracted anteriorly. The posterior rectus sheath is seen and left intact. The 10-mm port is then inserted bluntly into the pre-peritoneal space and CO2 inflated
  2. A 10-mm, 0° laparoscope is inserted and used to bluntly dissect the areolar tissue in the pre-peritoneal space, using a gentle sweeping motion. Alternatively, a balloon dissector can be used to bluntly dissect out the pre-peritoneal space
  3. The pre-peritoneal space is dissected laterally to the anterior superior iliac spine in order to place the 5-mm ports [Figure 1]
  4. The passage to do the lateral dissection is in the angle between the arcuate line and the inferior epigastric vessels. The lateral dissection is done all the way up to the psoas muscle inferolaterally, thereby exposing the nerves. The lateral space contains loose areolar tissue, which is completely divided using blunt dissection
  5. After the two 5-mm ports are placed, the inferior epigastric vessels, the pubic bone and Cooper's ligament are identified. A hernia is completely dissected from the cord structures and reduced [Figure 2]
  6. In general, a large 15 cm × 10 cm flat mesh is used to cover the defects with an adequate overlap. Few tacks may be used to secure the mesh in position, depending upon surgeon preference. The deflation process happens under direct visualisation, and the skin incisions are then closed.
Figure 1: Port positions for the standard technique of totally extraperitoneal

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Figure 2: Medial and lateral dissections. Reduction of sac

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 ¤ Modification of Standard Technique Top


  1. A Veress needle is first inserted in the midline three fingers above the pubis in the suprapubic space of Retzius [Figure 3]. The needle is pushed in till it gives a single click, ensuring that it is in the extraperitoneal space. A cautionary rider may be used for the blind Veress needle access. CO2 is then insufflated at a pressure of 15 mmHg. With the correct placement of the Veress needle, the recti become prominent after gas insufflation
  2. An infraumbilical incision is made, and a 10-mm trocar is inserted in the subcutaneous plane in a horizontal direction for about 2 cm (subcutaneous tunnelling), then slowly lifted up, and introduced at an angle of 60° toward the sacrum. The trocar is inserted such that there is a smooth, gentle give way feel. This ensures that the trocar is placed in the correct plane, which can be confirmed by the pre-peritoneal gas already present in the space [Figure 4] and [Figure 5]
  3. The insufflation continues with a pressure set at no higher than 12 mmHg. One hand holds the optic and the other leans on the abdominal wall. It is a question of balance between left and right
  4. The first 5-mm port is placed at the point of entry of the Veress needle. Most of the dissection is achieved using the scope and one working instrument. The second 5-mm port if required is taken, as shown in [Figure 6]
  5. The rest of the steps are similar to the standard technique
  6. We use a 3D anatomically contoured mesh for each case without tacks or any fixation. When the mesh is correctly positioned, carbon dioxide is slowly released from the pre-peritoneal space (under direct visualisation), allowing the peritoneum to “sandwich” the mesh in place against the abdominal wall [Figure 7].
Figure 3: Veress insertion technique

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Figure 4: Dulucq's technique for entering the pre-peritoneal space (note the subcutaneous tunnelling and angle of the port)

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Figure 5: As seen after trocar entry, lighthouse

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Figure 6: Port positions for the modified technique (right-sided hernia)

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Figure 7: Mesh placement

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 ¤ Results Top


Dulucq's technique was used in a total of 945 hernias repaired by laparoscopic TEP hernioplasty. Mean operative time was 45 min in unilateral hernia and 65 min in bilateral hernia. There were 19 cases of seroma formation and 1 hematoma which resolved on its own. Most of these were encountered in cases of direct hernia. There was a single case of hematoma which required surgery. About 15 patients had urinary retention which were managed conservatively. There were two recurrences during the initial cases which were unrelated to the technique.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}{Figure 4}{Figure 5}{Figure 6}{Figure 7}


 ¤ Conclusion Top


We routinely follow the Dulucq's technique during laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by TEP approach. This technique seems to be simpler, elegant and quick. It reduces the operative time and has no serious complications associated with it.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank Mohit Agrawal and Sonali Bhagwat for compiling data and writing and Prashanth Rao, operating surgeon.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
 ¤ References Top

1.
Millat B, Fédération de Recherche EN CHirurgie (FRENCH). Inguinal hernia repair. A randomized multicentric study comparing laparoscopic and open surgical repair. J Chir (Paris) 2007;144:119-24.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
McKernan JB, Laws HL. Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias using a totally extraperitoneal prosthetic approach. Surg Endosc 1993;7:26-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dulucq JL. Treatment of Inguinal Hernias by setting up a sub peritoneal prosthetic patch in retroperitoneoscopy. Cahiers de Chir 1991;79:15-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Carter J, Duh QY. Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias. World J Surg 2011;35:1519-25.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]



 

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