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 Table of Contents     
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 316-319
 

Retrospective case-matched study between reduced port laparoscopic rectopexy and conventional laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse


1 Department of Surgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan
2 Department of Surgery, Morioka Municipal Hospital, Morioka, Japan

Date of Submission28-Apr-2018
Date of Acceptance24-Jul-2018
Date of Web Publication10-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Akira Umemura
19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_100_18

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 ¤ Abstract 

Introduction: Reduced port laparoscopic Well's procedure (RPLWP) is a novel technique used to overcome the limitations of single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between RPLWP and conventional laparoscopic Well's procedure (CLWP) and to investigate the learning curve of RPLWP.
Patients and Methods: From January 2006 to March 2017, a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained laparoscopic surgery database was performed to identify patients had undergone CLWP and RPLWP. From these patients, each of 10 cases were manually matched for age, sex, body mass index. From January 2006 to March 2015, CLWP was used for all procedures whereas, from April 2015, RPLWP was routinely performed as a standard procedure for rectal prolapse.
Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of operating time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, and conversion to CLWP or open rectopexy. Based on the postoperative outcomes, the hospital stay was significantly shorter in the RPLWP group. The estimated learning curve for RPLWP was fitted and defined as y = 278.47e-0.064x with R2 = 0.838; therefore, a significant decrease in operative time was observed by using the more advanced surgical procedure.
Conclusions: RPLWP is an effective, safe, minimally invasive procedural alternative to CLWP with no disadvantage for patients when a skilled surgeon performs it.


Keywords: Rectopexy, reduced port surgery, single-incision laparoscopic surgery


How to cite this article:
Umemura A, Suto T, Fujiwara H, Nakamura S, Endo F, Sasaki A. Retrospective case-matched study between reduced port laparoscopic rectopexy and conventional laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse. J Min Access Surg 2019;15:316-9

How to cite this URL:
Umemura A, Suto T, Fujiwara H, Nakamura S, Endo F, Sasaki A. Retrospective case-matched study between reduced port laparoscopic rectopexy and conventional laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse. J Min Access Surg [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 19];15:316-9. Available from: http://www.journalofmas.com/text.asp?2019/15/4/316/240455



 ¤ Introduction Top


Full-thickness rectal prolapse is defined as the protrusion of all the layers of the rectal wall through the anal sphincter.[1] Laparoscopic rectopexy is becoming the primary surgical procedure for treating full-thickness rectal prolapse.[2]

Reduced port laparoscopic Well's procedure is a single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) combined with one needlescopic instrument to overcome the weak points of SILS. However, only a few studies on RPLWP have been published.[3],[4],[5] The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between RPLWP and conventional laparoscopic Well's procedure (CLWP) and to investigate the learning curve of RPLWP.


 ¤ Patients and Methods Top


From January 2006 to March 2017, 30 laparoscopic rectopexies for consecutive rectal prolapse patients were performed or supervised by a single surgeon at the Morioka Municipal Hospital. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained laparoscopic surgery database was performed to identify patients had undergone CLWP and RPLWP. From these patients, each of 10 cases were manually matched for patients' characteristics such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). From January 2006 to March 2015, CLWP was performed, and from April 2015, RPLWP was routinely performed as a standard procedure for rectal prolapse.

Surgical procedure

Each patient was placed in a low-lithotomy position under general anesthesia, after which the umbilicus was everted. A 3-cm skin incision was made through the umbilicus down to the fascia and into the abdominal cavity. A multi-channel port (EZ Access, Hakko, Nagano, Japan) was installed, and three 5 mm trocars were inserted from the platform. For patients undergoing RPLWP, a 3-mm reusable trocar (MIT force 3 mm trocar, Create Medic, Tokyo, Japan) was placed at the left lateral region. The procedure was completed using a 5 mm flexible laparoscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), a fully-integrated ultrasonic and bipolar technology device (Enseal, Johnson, and Johnson, Tokyo, Japan), and 3-mm atraumatic grasping forceps (MIT force 3-mm N-type atraumatic grasping forceps, Create Medic, Tokyo, Japan). Conversely, CLWP was performed using the 5-trocar-technique. The platform placements of both procedures are shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Trocar placements

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Rectal dissection was initiated using a medial-to-lateral approach, and this opening of the pararectal peritoneum was continued from right to left, and identifying the left ureter and gonadal vessels. The left-side peritoneum was opened, and the retrorectal space was connected [Figure 2]a. The dissection was extended as far as the levator antimuscle, which was freed of its entire surface. A 7 × 5 cm composite mesh (Composix™ E/X mesh, Bard, Warwick, RI, USA) was introduced into the abdominal cavity and fixed to the promontorium with a 5-mm fixation device (ProTack™, Medtronic Japan, Tokyo, Japan) [Figure 2]b. The rectum was then fully retracted into the abdominal cavity, and the mesh was stitched to the lateral serosa of the rectum with four 3-0 monofilament absorbable sutures (Biosyn™, Medtronic Japan, Tokyo, Japan) [Figure 2]c. Next, the bilateral and anterior pelvic peritoneum was completely stitched to the serosa of the rectum using 3-0 monofilament absorbable sutures [Figure 2]d. Finally, the incision was closed in layers without a drainage tube.
Figure 2: (a) The retrorectal space was completely opened, (b) a composite mesh was fixed to the promontrium with a 5-mm fixation device, (c) the mesh was stitched to the lateral serosa of the rectum using a needlescopic instrument, (d) the bilateral pelvic peritoneum was completely closed by employing intracorporeal suturing

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Statistical analyses

Continuous data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. To compare the treatment groups, a Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to continuous data, and a Chi-square test was applied to categorical data. All statistical tests were performed using StateMate V for Windows (ATMS Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Based on prior data showing that most learning curves assume a power-law relationship, we applied a power-law curve model (y = alx –a2) to the abstracted learning data (i.e., operating time vs. case number) to obtain a learning curve – both the power-law value and the predicted value from the multivariable model – the curves were examined to identify where the learning curve stabilized.[6],[7]


 ¤ Results Top


Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes are shown in [Table 1]. No significant differences were found between RPLWP and CLWP groups with regard to patient characteristics, including mean BMI and prior history of abdominal surgery. With regard to surgical outcomes, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of operating time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, and conversion to CLWP or open rectopexy. Based on the postoperative outcomes, the time required to resume oral intake was similar between the two groups. However, the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the RPLWP group. No recurrence had been observed in both groups at the time of this submission.
Table 1: Patients characteristics and surgical outcomes

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The learning curve was evaluated for RPLWP, which was performed sequentially by the single experienced surgeon. The estimated learning curve for RPLWP was fitted and defined as y = 278.47e-0.064x with R2 = 0.838 [Figure 3]. Hence, a significant decrease in operative time was observed. The mean operating time of the last five cases was not significantly but shorter than that of the first five cases [Table 2].
Figure 3: Learning curve of reduced port laparoscopic Well's procedure

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Table 2: Comparison of surgical results between first and last five cases in reduced port laparoscopic Well's procedure

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 ¤ Discussion Top


Laparoscopic rectopexy is the primary treatment for full-thickness rectal prolapse because this approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery along with comparatively low rates of recurrence.[4] In contrast, perineal procedures tend to be less invasive, but they have significantly higher recurrence rates.[2] For these reasons, perineal procedures are not usually used, and in some cases, they have been abolished.

When performing laparoscopic rectopexy, a combination of rectopexy and sigmoid colectomy is commonly considered because sigmoid colectomy is the best way to address both full-thickness rectal prolapse and incontinence without causing constipation.[8] However, sigmoid colectomy caries the risk of anastomotic complications and mesh infections.[4] Therefore, sigmoid colectomy is not usually performed during laparoscopic rectopexy.[9]

According to the literature on reduced port laparoscopic rectopexy, there have been 13 cases of SILS-rectopexy [3],[5] and one case of RPLWP [4] [Table 3]. Needlescopic instruments partially overcome the main limitation of SILS, namely the lack of instrument triangulation.[10] In addition, needlescopic instruments can be easily inserted through a very small skin incision; hence, the cosmetic outcome is also satisfactory.[10] The role of a needlescopic instrument is to generate countertraction and reveal the cutting line in the mobilization of the rectum like an assistant. Furthermore, it can work as the left hand of the operator during the rectopexy phase, especially for suturing. For these reasons, a needlescopic instrument provides powerful support during RPLWP, even though its shaft is not rigid and its small jaw is not very strong.
Table 3: Reported cases of reduced port laparoscopic Well's procedure including single-incision laparoscopic surgery rectopexy

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From our results, RPLWP could shorten the length of hospital stay under the influence of the lesser abdominal wall damage and reduction of abdominal pain. Some meta-analyses also revealed that SILS-colectomy was associated with shorter hospital stay compared to conventional laparoscopic colectomy.[11],[12] In addition, the learning curve revealed a dramatic shortening in operating time as experiences with RPLWP grew; the mean operating time for the last five cases was almost similar to CLWP. These results suggest that RPLWP is an effective, safe, minimally invasive procedural alternative to CLWP with no disadvantage for patients when the well-trained surgeon performs it.


 ¤ Conclusions Top


RPLWP is a technically feasible and safe procedure that overcomes many of the technical difficulties of SILS-rectopexy. In the near future, continuing advances in needlescopic instruments will improve RPLWP, and this procedure can be an alternative choice.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
 ¤ References Top

1.
Lechaux D, Trebuchet G, Siproudhis L, Campion JP. Laparoscopic rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse: A single-institution retrospective study evaluating surgical outcome. Surg Endosc 2005;19:514-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Cadeddu F, Sileri P, Grande M, De Luca E, Franceschilli L, Milito G, et al. Focus on abdominal rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse: Meta-analysis of literature. Tech Coloproctol 2012;16:37-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Adair J, Gromski MA, Nagle D. Single-incision laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and rectopexy case series. Am J Surg 2011;202:243-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Miyo M, Takemasa I, Mokutani Y, Uemura M, Nishimura J, Hata T, et al. Single-incision laparoscopic rectopexy (Wells) with simultaneous sigmoidectomy in a case of complete rectal prolapse and a sigmoid tumor: Report of a case. Surg Today 2015;45:793-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ahmed GM. Single port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy. Prz Gastroenterol 2016;11:123-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Lin JF, Frey M, Huang JQ. Learning curve analysis of the first 100 robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomies performed by a single surgeon. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2014;124:88-91.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Zhu JG, Han W, Guo W, Su W, Bai ZG, Zhang ZT, et al. Learning curve and outcome of laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration for choledocholithiasis. Br J Surg 2015;102:1691-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Huber FT, Stein H, Siewert JR. Functional results after treatment of rectal prolapse with rectopexy and sigmoid resection. World J Surg 1995;19:138-43.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Byrne CM, Smith SR, Solomon MJ, Young JM, Eyers AA, Young CJ, et al. Long-term functional outcomes after laparoscopic and open rectopexy for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51:1597-604.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Umemura A, Suto T, Nakamura S, Fujiwara H, Endo F, Nitta H, et al. Comparison of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus needlescopic cholecystectomy: A single institutional randomized clinical trial. Dig Surg 2018. doi: 10.1159/000486455.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Hoyuela C, Juvany M, Carvajal F. Single-incision laparoscopy versus standard laparoscopy for colorectal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Surg 2017;214:127-40.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Li HJ, Huang L, Li TJ, Su J, Peng LR, Liu W, et al. Short-term outcomes of single-incision versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for colorectal diseases: Meta-analysis of randomized and prospective evidence. J Gastrointest Surg 2017;21:1931-45.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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